TERMS OF USE

By signing up for an account on our platform, or by using any of our Services (as defined below), you are agreeing to be bound by the following terms and conditions (the “Terms of Use”)

As used in these Terms of Use, “we”, “us” and “PayedIn Technology” refers to our Company, PayedIn Technology Limited.

The services offered by PayedIn Technology under this Terms of Use include various products and services to help merchants sell goods and provide services to buyers, and buyers to purchase goods from merchants (“Service” or “Services”). Any new feature or tool that is added to the current Services shall also be construed as “Service” or “Services” and shall be subject to this Terms of Use.

You must read, agree with and accept all of the terms and conditions contained or expressly referenced in these Terms of Use, including our Privacy Policy before you may sign up for an account on any of our platforms and/or use any of our Services. Should you desire to use or continue to use our website, Applications or solutions (“Platform”) and/or Services, with or without signing up for an account, you will be deemed to have agreed to be bound by this Terms of Use and this Terms of Use shall be applicable to you.

This site may include commodities, content or services provided by third parties, including materials provided by other users, merchants, bloggers and third-party licensors, syndicators, aggregators, payment providers and/or reporting services (“Third-Party Providers”). All statements and/or opinions expressed in these materials, and responses to questions and other content or services by the Third-Party Providers, other than the content or services provided by Payedin Technology, are solely the opinions and the responsibility of the Third-Party Providers providing such content, services or materials, and do not reflect the opinion or position of Payedin Technology. We are therefore not responsible, or liable to you or any third party, for the services or content or the accuracy of any materials provided by any Third-Party Provider.

OUR COMPANY OVERVIEW 

PayedIn Technology is a technology Company that has an e-commerce platform in Nigeria. Our mission is to provide a one-stop digital shop for all our customers’ needs as we make commerce better, easier and more convenient for everyone.

OUR SERVICES

PayedIn Technology is an all in one online hassle-free marketplace connecting sellers (“Merchants”) and buyers or service users (“Users”) together to transact online, we provide an opportunity for sellers to list products and provide them with revenue management system. You can pay at any of our registered merchants through QR codes or payment link from any merchant online or via PayedIn Technology mobile app and web app. Our goal is to solve problems faced by marketplaces to conduct their services digitally in a cost-effective and efficient way. We also create a flexible platform for organisations to receive donations and sponsorships.

PAYMENT

Unless otherwise indicated, Users shall make payment for services and commodities purchased on any of our Platforms via PayedIn Technology’s third-party payment service provider (i.e. the payment service provider provided by PayedIn Technology) and no other payment service provider. Users are required to notify us immediately by sending an email to support@payedin.co should they encounter any Merchant on our Platform that requires that Users make payments via any other payment service provider. Users are also required to confirm the authenticity of Merchants that they engage in transactions with before making payments as Payedin Technology will not be liable for any fraudulent claim as a result of a supposed Merchant obtaining by false pretenses from a User.  PayedIn Technology shall not be liable or responsible for any actions or inactions of the Vendors and hereby disclaims any and all responsibility and liability in that regard. Please note that we will not be liable for any actions, loss or damage that may arise from your use of the integrated payment service, as same are services by a Third-Party Provider. Kindly refer to the terms of use and/or other legal documents of the Third-Party Providers to understand your legal rights and obligations in the use of the services, and content or materials provided by Third-Party Providers.
 
UPDATES, MODIFICATIONS & AMENDMENTS 

We may need to update, modify or amend this Terms of Use as our technology evolves and as required by law. We reserve the right to make changes to the same from time to time and notify Users of material changes. You also agree to receive notices from us electronically. The Terms of Use will apply from the effective date provided at the top-left corner of this Notice. We advise that you check this page often, referring to the date of the last modification on this page. If a User objects to any of the changes to this Terms of Use, the User must cease using this Website, our Mobile Applications and affiliated Services via any of our platforms or terminate their account in the event an account has been created.
 

ELIGIBILITY AND ACCOUNT REGISTRATION 

You must be a resident of Nigeria and be at least 18 years or the age of majority in your State of residence, and you may register for an account (your “Account”) to gain full access to use the Service. Kindly note that to access our Services without registering as a User, you can only make payments via payment links and QR codes.
 
    a. Registering, Opening, Using an Account
 
To register, open, use, or upgrade an Account, PayedIn Technology may require that you submit certain information, including but not limited to your name, email address, text-enabled mobile phone number, street address, and zip code etc. You represent and warrant that you own the email or mobile phone number you register with and all information entered or collected in the course of creating your Account and any information you subsequently add or update from your settings (“Account Information”) is true and accurate, and you agree to keep your Account Information current.
 

Please note that Merchants are required have to open a Merchant Account to be able to sell their products and provide their services to Users.

 
   b. Validating and Authenticating your Identity
 
Kindly note that Account holders, Merchants or Users, will be required to validate their Accounts. You hereby authorize us, directly or through the use of third parties, to make any inquiries we consider necessary to validate or authenticate your identity and Account Information. This may include asking you for further information or documentation about your Account usage or identity, requiring you to take steps to confirm ownership of your email address, mobile phone number or financial instruments, or verifying your information against third party databases or through other sources..
 
In connection with your use of our Service, you may not refuse to (a) cooperate in an investigation concerning activity that potentially violates the law or the Terms, (b) provide confirmation of your identity, or (c) provide confirmation of any information you provide us. If you decline to provide us with the information that we request or if we cannot verify your identity to our satisfaction (in our sole judgment and discretion) for any reason, then you will not be able to use our platform or Service. In addition, we reserve the right to suspend or terminate the Account of anyone who provides inaccurate, untrue, or incomplete information.
 
The first time you access your Account using a new device, we may require you to authenticate your Account with additional information. If your Account cannot be verified, you may be required to set up a new Account
 

CONFIDENTIALITY AND SECURITY

We take reasonable precautions to protect your confidential information. For example we encrypt databases and information we transmit. We also conduct regular security assessment, penetration tests and install security patches on our systems in line with global industry security standard practices. We expect that you will take necessary precautions to secure PayedIn’s confidential information too.

  • Keeping it confidential: While using our services, you may share confidential information with us, and you may become aware of confidential information about us. Your good self and our Company both agree to take reasonable steps to protect the other party’s confidential information from being accessed by unauthorised individuals. However, confidential information may be shared with legal or regulatory authorities if required to do so.
  • Security: We take security seriously and you should too!
  • Security safeguards: We have invested in technical, physical and administrative safeguards to do our part to help keep your data safe and secure. While we have taken steps to help protect your data, no method of electronic storage is completely secure, and we cannot guarantee absolute security. We will notify you if there appears to be unauthorised access to your account and we may also restrict access to certain parts of our services until you verify that access was by an authorised user.
  • Account security features: We may introduce security features to make your account more secure, such as two-step authentication, biometrics, transaction PIN, database encryption, use of security PIN and a strong hashing algorithm password. Depending on where you are in the world or what services you are using, we may require you to adopt some of these features. Where we make the use of security features optional, you are responsible (meaning we are not liable) for any consequences of not using those features. We strongly encourage you to use all optional security features.
  • Playing your part to secure your data: You have an important part to play by keeping your login details secure, not allowing unauthorised access or disclosure to third parties, and by making sure you have strong security on your own systems. If you realise that there has been or threatened to be any unauthorised use of your data, we will advise you to immediately change your private credentials and subsequently contact support via support@payedin.co or call 07046700040, should you have further concerns. You also agree not to use free-form fields in any of our platforms or services to store data.
  • Third-party products: Along with the use of our services, you may use data, and services from other merchants (third-party products), for example, those we make available on our Website: https://www.payedin.co or any of our Platforms. Any merchant or third party providing a third-party product is a provider and is independent of us, so be aware that a provider may also charge you fees in addition to what you pay us subject to the third parties. Kindly note that as you make payments via our Website, Application or affiliated platforms, the payment integrator will be responsible for securing your confidential card details.
  • Third-party terms and descriptions
    Third-party products are subject to terms and conditions and privacy notices set by their providers. These include how the provider will use your data that you make available to them. Be sure to read and make sure you agree to their terms and conditions and understand their approach on personal and non-personal data before you connect to them. The descriptions of third-party products that we publish, and any associated links, have been provided to us by the providers. While we make reasonable efforts to check the accuracy of the descriptions, the providers are solely responsible for any representations contained in those descriptions. We do not endorse or assume any responsibility for third-party products.
  • Payments : Making use of the Payedin Technology’s platforms is free for all Customers, but a small fee applies to Merchants known as Transaction fees. Customers can make payments for products via different channels made available to them by the Merchants.
    The different payment channels incudes; webpay, mobile app payments, payment links, and QR codes.
  • Payment Limits: Payments are subject to payment limits due to security and legal requirements. These limits are set dynamically depending on our PayedIn payment processors. We can review these limits at any time to take effect on the User and merchant account. You should also ensure that your cards are sufficient to cover the payment you intend to make as well as make sure it does not exceed the maximum transaction limit. You should be aware that the merchant you are paying to may also be subject to withdrawal limits and that this may affect the merchant’s settlement of the payment you intend to send.
  • Maintenance and downtime: We really try to minimise any downtime, but sometimes it is necessary so we can keep our services updated and secure. You also may have occasional access issues and may experience data loss, so backing up your data is important.
  • Availability : We strive to maintain the availability of our services, and provide email support, 24 hours a day. Occasionally, we need to perform maintenance on our services, and this may require a period of downtime. We try to minimise any such downtime.
    Where planned maintenance is being undertaken, we will attempt to notify you in advance but can’t guarantee it.
  • Access issues: You know how the internet works – occasionally you might not be able to access our services and your data. This might happen for any number of reasons, at any time.
  • Data loss: Data loss is an unavoidable risk when using any technology. You are responsible for maintaining copies of your data entered into our Platform.
  • No compensation: Whatever the cause of any downtime, access issues or data loss, your only recourse is to discontinue using our services.
  • Problems and support: If you have a problem, we have excellent support articles. You can find more information about online support for our services via support@payedin.co and 07046700040.
 

TEXT MESSAGES AND OTHER COMMUNICATIONS

Here is where we describe your consent to receive texts from us and you also consent to us sending messages to your email. You can opt out of communications in ways that are specific to that communication method, such as by unsubscribing from emails, or replying to text messages with ‘STOP’.

By providing us with a mobile number, either when you sign up for an Account or update the contact information associated with your Account, you consent to receiving text (SMS) messages and push notifications from us. Such communications may include, but are not limited to requests for secondary authentication, receipts, reminders, notifications regarding updates to your account or account
support, and marketing or promotional communications. You acknowledge that you are not required to consent to receive promotional texts or calls as a condition of using the Services. Call and text message communications may be generated by automatic telephone dialing systems. Standard message and data rates applied by your cell phone carrier may apply to the text messages we send you. If you provide us with the mobile number of any other person or entity when initiating or requesting a payment through the Service, you represent and warrant to us that the person or entity has consented to receive text messages from us related to that payment. Standard text messaging rates may apply based on your plan with your mobile carrier.

You may opt-out of receiving promotional email communications we send to you by following the unsubscribe options on such emails. You may opt out of any promotional phone calls by informing the caller that you would not like to receive future promotional calls. You acknowledge that opting out of receiving communications may impact your use of the Services.

OUR RIGHTS

  • We reserve the right to modify or terminate the Services for any reason, without notice at any time. Not all Services and features are available in every jurisdiction, and we are under no obligation to make any Services or features available in any jurisdiction.
  • We reserve the right to refuse service to anyone for any reason at any time.
  • We may, but have no obligation to, remove any content and suspend or terminate Accounts if we determine in our sole discretion that the goods or services offered via a merchant’s store, or the content uploaded or posted to a store, violate our Acceptable Use Policy or these Terms of Use.
  • Verbal or written abuse of any kind (including threats of abuse or retribution) of any of our customer, employee, member, or officer will result in immediate Account termination.
  • We do not pre-screen contents and it is in our sole discretion to refuse or remove any content from the Service, including a merchant’s store.
  • We reserve the right to provide our services to the competitors of merchants on our website and make no promise of exclusivity in any particular market segment. You further acknowledge and agree that our employees and contractors may also be customers/merchants on our platform or Website and that they may compete with you, although they may not use your Confidential Information in doing so.
  • In the event of a dispute regarding Account ownership, we reserve the right to request documentation to determine or confirm Account ownership.
  • Payedin Technology retains the right to determine, in our sole judgment, rightful Account ownership and transfer an Account to the rightful store owner. If we are unable to reasonably determine the rightful store owner, without prejudice to our other rights and remedies, we reserve the right to temporarily disable an Account until resolution has been determined between the disputing parties.
 

DATA AND SERVICE USAGE AND OWNERSHIP

Your Content

You retain all rights to your content when you upload it into our services, but you do give us broad rights to use, modify, display your content on our website. You can see specifics on the rights you grant us below. Also, anything you provide us or make available to the public through our services must not contain anything that we think is objectionable (e.g., illegal, obscene, hateful or harmful to you, our customers or us). We can remove any content at any time.

Disclaimer of Warranties

YOU EXPRESSLY UNDERSTAND AND AGREE THAT THE USE OF THE SERVICES IS AT YOUR SOLE RISK. PAYEDIN TECHNOLOGY EXPRESSLY DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES OF ANY KIND, WHETHER EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. PAYEDIN TECHNOLOGY MAKES NO WARRANTY THAT THE SERVICES WILL (I) BE NOT UNINTERRUPTED, TIMELY, SECURE, OR ERROR FREE; OR (II) MEET YOUR REQUIREMENTS OR EXPECTATIONS; OR (III) BE FREE FROM VIRUSES OR OTHER HARMFUL COMPONENTS. USE OF ANY MATERIAL DOWNLOADED OR OBTAINED THROUGH THE USE OF THE SERVICES SHALL BE AT YOUR OWN DISCRETION AND RISK, AND YOU WILL BE SOLELY RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE TO YOUR COMPUTER SYSTEM, MOBILE TELEPHONE, WIRELESS DEVICE, OR DATA THAT RESULTS FROM THE USE OF THE SERVICES OR THE DOWNLOAD OF ANY SUCH MATERIAL.

Limitation of Liability

YOU AGREE THAT PAYEDIN TECHNOLOGY (TOGETHER WITH ANY AFFILIATES, JOINT VENTURE PARTNERS, OR OTHER COMPANIES IT CONTROLS OR IS UNDER COMMON CONTROL WITH, TO INCLUDE EMPLOYEES, OFFICERS, AND DIRECTORS OF SUCH ENTITIES OR THE OTHER COMPANIES ON ITS PLATFORM) SHALL, IN NO EVENT, BE LIABLE FOR ANY CONSEQUENTIAL, INCIDENTAL, INDIRECT, SPECIAL, PUNITIVE, OR OTHER LOSS OR DAMAGE WHATSOEVER OR F OR LOSS OF BUSINESS PROFITS, BUSINESS INTERRUPTION, COMPUTER FAILURE, LOSS OF BUSINESS INFORMATION (INCLUDING USER & CLIENT DATA), OR OTHER LOSS ARISING OUT OF OR CAUSED BY YOUR USE OF OR INABILITY TO USE OUR SERVICES, EVEN IF PAYEDIN TECHNOLOGY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE. PAYEDIN TECHNOLOGY SHALL NOT BE HELD LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OR DAMAGE THAT OCCURS
FROM USERS’ INTERACTION OR TRANSACTIONS WITH MERCHANTS. FURTHERMORE, PLEASE NOTE THAT PAYEDIN TECHNOLOGY IS MERELY A PLATFORM TO ENABLE TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN MERCHANTS AND USERS AND PAYEDIN TECHNOLOGY WILL NOT BE
HELD LIABLE FOR DISPUTES (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO DISPUTES IN RESPECT OF THE CONFIRMATION OF PAYMENT OR RECEIPT OF PAYMENT MADE; DISPUTES IN RESPECT OF THE VALIDATION OF THE DELIVERY OF PRODUCTS AND COMMODITIES BY A MERCHANT THROUGH ANY DELIVERY CHANNEL AND UNTO A USER; DISPUTES IN RESPECT OF THE FITNESS FOR PURPOSE AND THE MERCHANTABLE QUALITY OF PRODUCTS AND SERVICES PROVIDED BY MERCHANTS) THAT MAY ARISE BETWEEN A MERCHANTS AND A USER. WE EXPECT YOU TO CONDUCT YOUR DUE DILIGENCE ON THE MERCHANTS THAT YOU PATRONIZE.

Discontinued Use

If you are dissatisfied with any portion of this Platform, or with any of this Terms and Conditions, your sole and exclusive remedy is to discontinue using the Platform.Third-Party Promotions We shall have no liability whatsoever in respect of any advertisements, campaigns or other promotions of other companies and third parties that appear on the Platform.

Linked Websites

The Platform may contain links to other websites (“Linked Sites”). The Linked Sites are not under our control, and we are not responsible for the contents of any Linked Site, including, without limitation, any link contained in a Linked Site, or any changes or updates to a Linked Site. Linked Sites are provided to you only as a convenience, and the inclusion of any link does not imply endorsement by us of the website, the operator of the website, the website’s content or any association by us with its operators. Links to other websites should not be construed as any endorsement, approval or recommendation by us of the materials on, or operators of, such websites.

Indemnification

By using the Services you agree to indemnify and hold harmless PayedIn Technology, its officers, directors, employees, suppliers, and affiliates, from and against any losses, damages, fines, and expenses (including attorney’s fees and costs) arising out of or relating to any claims that you have used the Services in violation of another party’s rights, in violation of any law, in violation of any provisions of this Agreement, or any other claim related to your use of the Services, except where such use is authorized by PayedIn Technology.

You agree to release, indemnify and keep indemnified us from and against all actions, claims, costs (including legal costs and expenses), losses, proceedings, damages, liabilities, or demands suffered or incurred by us to any person arising out of or in connection with your failure to comply with these Platform’s Terms and Conditions.

You agree to transact above the transaction limit and outside the risk parameters set by our payment service providers in which a customer is not allowed to carry out transactions above certain amount at a time. Accordingly, you irrevocably undertake to indemnify PayedIn and keep it fully indemnified against all losses, claims, demands, liabilities actions, proceedings, damages, fees and expenses which it may incur or suffer as a result of transactions performed by you, your Customers or affiliates on PayedIn’s platform. You further undertake that PayedIn shall not be held liable by you or any person acting on your behalf or transacting with you for any fraudulent transactions or chargebacks originating from your use of its platform. In the event of any loss or damage suffered by PayedIn due to your acts or omission or those of your customers, you agree to authorize PayedIn to debit any amount standing to your credit with PayedIn towards remedying the loss or damage it may have suffered. This indemnity shall not be in any way discharged or diminished, nor shall your liability to PayedIn be affected by reason of any other guarantee, indemnity, assurance, pledge, lien, bill, note, mortgage, charge, debenture, security, or other right, power or remedy, or any payment being or becoming wholly or in part invalid, defective, or unenforceable, or otherwise failing to be perfected or enforced, or being avoided on any ground whatsoever. This indemnity shall be construed in all respects in accordance with the Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria as may be in force from time to time

Dispute Resolution

  • Where dispute arises by using the Services, the Parties agree to settle such dispute amicably within 8 (Eight) weeks from the date the dispute is first raised by the dissatisfied party.
  • Without prejudice to the paragraph above, disputes arising out of or in connection with this Agreement that cannot be settled amicably shall be resolved by mediation in accordance with the Rules of the Lagos Multi-Door House Court House (LMDC) as amended from time to time, or any amendment or re-enactment thereof.
  • Provided that, where the Parties are unable to resolve any dispute via mediation, same may be referred to a court of competent jurisdiction in Nigeria.
  • In cases of disputes between a Merchant and a User, the User is expected to resolve the dispute directly with the Merchant. You agree that the outcome of your dispute with the Merchant or User will not affect our rights or remedies under this Agreement.

 

Termination

  • PayedIn Technology may immediately suspend or terminate your account (in whole or in part) with prejudice in the event of:
    1. Its reasonable belief that you have provided untrue, inaccurate, outdated, or incomplete information in registering for or maintaining your account;
    2. Your non-payment for any fees related to the Services (if applicable);
    3. Any suspected illegal or fraudulent activity in your use of the Services;
    4. Requests by law enforcement or other government agencies; or
    5. Its reasonable belief that you have violated the terms of this Agreement or
      have or are conducting any fraudulent activity or identity theft.
  • In the event this Agreement is terminated (other than with prejudice), PayedIn Technology will make available to you a file of the User Data if you so request in writing within ninety (90) days of termination. You agree and acknowledge that PayedIn Technology has no obligation to retain the User Data, and may delete, without incurring any liability, such User Data, on the ninety-first (91st) day following termination save for the record of transactions between Merchants and Users.
  • In the event this Agreement is terminated with prejudice, your right to access or use User Data shall immediately cease, and PayedIn Technology reserves the right to withhold, remove and/or discard User Data, without notice or liability.
 
 

Cancellation and Termination

  1. You may cancel your Account and terminate the Terms of Use at any time by contacting our Support via support@payedin.co and then following the specific instructions indicated to you in our response.
  2. Upon termination of the Services by either party for any reason:
    1. We will cease providing you with the Services and you will no longer be able to access your Account; unless otherwise provided in the Terms of Use, you will not be entitled to any refunds of any Fees, pro rata or otherwise;
    2. any outstanding balance that a merchant owes to PayedIn Technology for its use of the Services through the effective date of such termination will immediately become due and payable in full; and
    3. A merchant’s store website will be taken offline.
    4. All outstanding balance owed by a customer to a merchant shall be settled between the parties.
  3. Fraud: Without limiting any other remedies, PayedIn Technology may suspend or terminate your Account if we suspect that you (by conviction, settlement, insurance or escrow investigation, or otherwise) have engaged in fraudulent activity in connection with the use of the Services.
 

PRIVACY & DATA PROTECTION

PayedIn Technology is firmly committed to protecting the privacy of both merchants and customers personal information. By using the Service, you acknowledge and agree that our collection, usage and disclosure of this personal information is governed by our DATA PRIVACY, PROTECTION & COOKIE NOTICE.

MISCELLANEOUS
Force Majeure : Where PayedIn Technology’s performance here-under is rendered inadvisable, commercially impracticable, illegal, or impossible to perform by elements of nature, acts of God, acts of war, acts or threats of terrorism, pandemics, or other causes outside of its reasonable control, PayedIn Technology, upon giving prompt Notice to the other party, will be excused totally (without any liabilities or damages whatsoever) from performance for the duration of the condition, provided that it uses commercially reasonable efforts to mitigate the effects.

Waiver

All waivers must be in writing. A party’s consent to, or waiver of, enforcement of this Agreement on one occasion will not be deemed a waiver of any other provision or such provision on any other occasion.

Entire Agreement/Amendment

This Agreement represents the entire agreement of the parties and supersedes all prior or contemporaneous agreements, proposals or representations, written or oral, concerning its subject matter.

Notice

PayedIn Technology may give notice to you by means of a general notice through the Services, electronic mail to your e-mail address on record in your account information, or by written communication sent by first class mail to your address on record in your account information. Such notice shall be deemed to have been given upon the expiration of Forty-Eight (48) hours after mailing or posting (if sent by first class mail or pre-paid post) or twelve (12) hours after sending (if sent electronically). You may give notice to PayedIn Technology (deemed given upon receipt by PayedIn Technology) by any of the following: letter delivered by nationally recognized overnight delivery service or first-class postage prepaid mail to:

    Address: 62B Ajanoku Street, Opebi Lagos State, Nigeria
Attention: Legal Department
Email: support@payedin.co
 
 

No Liability for Third-Party Services Linked From Site

In using our Services, you may enter into a business relationship with a third party offering it goods and/or services through the Services. Any such activity is solely between you and the relevant third party. PayedIn Technology does not endorse any such third parties and shall have no liability, obligation, or responsibility for any such business activity.

Assignment

Except as otherwise provided in this Agreement, you may not assign this Agreement without the prior express written consent of PayedIn Technology.
This Agreement may be assigned without Grantee’s consent by PayedIn Technology to:

  1. an affiliate;
  2. an acquirer of the PayedIn Technology’s business or assets; or
  3. a successor by merger or equity purchase.
 

Governing Law

This Terms shall be governed by the Laws of the Federal Republic of Nigeria.

Severability

In the event that any provision of this Agreement be declared illegal or unenforceable and cannot be modified to be enforceable, such provision shall immediately become null and void, leaving the remainder of this Agreement in full force and effect.